Python语言之如何进行的深拷贝和浅拷贝
白羽 2018-07-03 来源 :网络 阅读 89 评论 0

摘要:本文将带你了解 Python语言之如何进行的深拷贝和浅拷贝,希望本文对大家学Python有所帮助。



一、深拷贝与浅拷贝

深拷贝:赋值时值完全复制,完全的copy,对其中一个作出改变,不会影响另一个

浅拷贝:赋值时,引用赋值,相当于取了一个别名。对其中一个修改,会影响另一个

对于PHP而言,= 赋值时,普通对象是深拷贝,但对对象来说,是浅拷贝,即引用赋值。当对象作为参数传递时,无论参数前是否有&引用符号,都将被看做是赋值引用。

对于python而言,情况可能会有点小复杂,因为python一切皆为对象,所以python的普通赋值、深拷贝和浅拷贝之间都是有细微区别的。

二、php下的他们

在php5中,对象的 = 赋值和传递都是引用。要想实现拷贝副本,php提供了clone函数实现。clone完全copy了一份副本。但是clone时,我们可能不希望copy源对象的所有内容,那我们可以利用__clone来操作。
请看如下代码段:

Python

 




   

<?php

//普通对象赋值,深拷贝,完全值复制

$m = 1;

$n = $m;

$n = 2;

echo $m;//值复制,对新对象的改变不会对m作出改变,输出 1.深拷贝

echo PHP_EOL;

/*==================*/

//对象赋值,浅拷贝,引用赋值

class Test{

    public $a=1;

}

$m = new Test();

$n = $m;//引用赋值

$m->a = 2;//修改m,n也随之改变

echo $n->a;//输出2,浅拷贝

echo PHP_EOL;

?>

   


由于对象的赋值时引用,要想实现值复制,php提供了clone函数来实现复制对象。但是clone函数存在这么一个问题,克隆对象时,原对象的普通属性能值复制,但是源对象的对象属性赋值时还是引用赋值,浅拷贝。

Python

 




   

<?php

class Test{

    public $a=1;

}

class TestOne{

    public $b=1;

    public $obj;

    //包含了一个对象属性,clone时,它会是浅拷贝

    public function __construct(){

        $this->obj = new Test();

    }

}

$m = new TestOne();

$n = $m;//这是完全的浅拷贝,无论普通属性还是对象属性

$p = clone $m;

//普通属性实现了深拷贝,改变普通属性b,不会对源对象有影响

$p->b = 2;

echo $m->b;//输出原来的1

echo PHP_EOL;

//对象属性是浅拷贝,改变对象属性中的a,源对象m中的对象属性中a也改变

$p->obj->a = 3;

echo $m->obj->a;//输出3,随新对象改变

?>

   


要想实现对象真正的深拷贝,有以下两种方法:

1、利用序列化反序列化实现

Python

 

   

<?php

class Test{

    public $a=1;

}

class TestOne{

    public $b=1;

    public $obj;

    //包含了一个对象属性,clone时,它会是浅拷贝

    public function __construct(){

        $this->obj = new Test();

    }

    

}

$m = new TestOne();

//方法二,序列化反序列化实现对象深拷贝

$n = serialize($m);

$n = unserialize($n);

$n->b = 2;

echo $m->b;//输出原来的1

echo PHP_EOL;

//可以看到,普通属性实现了深拷贝,改变普通属性b,不会对源对象有影响

$n->obj->a = 3;

echo $m->obj->a;//输出1,不随新对象改变,还是保持了原来的属性,可以看到,序列化和反序列化可以实现对象的深拷贝

?>

   


2、写clone函数

Python

 



   

<?php

class Test{

    public $a=1;

}

class TestOne{

    public $b=1;

    public $obj;

    //包含了一个对象属性,clone时,它会是浅拷贝

    public function __construct(){

        $this->obj = new Test();

    }

    

    //方法一:重写clone函数

    public function __clone(){

        $this->obj = clone $this->obj;

    }

}

$m = new TestOne();

$n = clone $m;

$n->b = 2;

echo $m->b;//输出原来的1

echo PHP_EOL;

//可以看到,普通属性实现了深拷贝,改变普通属性b,不会对源对象有影响

//由于改写了clone函数,现在对象属性也实现了真正的深拷贝,对新对象的改变,不会影响源对象

$n->obj->a = 3;

echo $m->obj->a;//输出1,不随新对象改变,还是保持了原来的属性

?>

   


三、python下的他们

“对一个对象进行浅拷贝其实是新创建了一个类型和原来对象一样,但是内容是原来对象元素的引用。换句话说,这个拷贝的对象本身是新的,但是它的内容不是”,摘自《Python核心编程》。

这是我个人对python下浅拷贝和深拷贝的理解:

赋值:简单地拷贝对象的引用,两个对象的id相同。
浅拷贝:创建一个新的组合对象,这个新对象与原对象共享内存中的子对象。
深拷贝:创建一个新的组合对象,同时递归地拷贝所有子对象,新的组合对象与原对象没有任何关联。虽然实际上会共享不可变的子对象,但不影响它们的相互独立性。

浅拷贝和深拷贝的不同仅仅是对组合对象来说,所谓的组合对象就是包含了其它对象的可变对象,如列表,类实例。而对于数字、字符串以及其它“原子”类型,没有拷贝一说,产生的都是原对象的引用。
下面的代码希望能对你有进一步的帮助;

Python

    

#! /usr/bin/python

# -*- coding:UTF-8 -*-

?

import copy

?

# ???

?

a = [1, "a", 3, [4, 5, 6], [[7, 8, 9]]]

?

b = a

?

c = list(a)

?

d = copy.deepcopy(a)

print "???&&&"

print id(a)

print "????&&&"

print id(b)

print "?????&&&"

print id(c)

print "?????&&&"

print id(d)

?

print "????###"

for i, j in zip(a, b):

????print id(i), id(j)

print "?????###"

for i, j in zip(a, c):

????print id(i), id(j)

print "?????###"

for i, j in zip(a, d):

????print id(i), id(j)

print "######"

?

a[0] = 2

a[3][0] = 14

print "????? %d, %d" % (a[0], a[3][0])

print "*******"

print "????"

print b[0], b[3][0]

print "?????"

print c[0], c[3][0]

print "?????"

print d[0], d[3][0]

print "**##" />"
print a</textarea></div>
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</td>
<td class="crayon-code"><div class="crayon-pre" style="font-size: 13px !important; line-height: 15px !important; -moz-tab-size:4; -o-tab-size:4; -webkit-tab-size:4; tab-size:4;"><div class="crayon-line" id="crayon-5a7277ce7f942133817876-1"><span class="crayon-c">#! /usr/bin/python</span></div><div class="crayon-line crayon-striped-line" id="crayon-5a7277ce7f942133817876-2"><span class="crayon-c"># -*- coding:UTF-8 -*-</span></div><div class="crayon-line" id="crayon-5a7277ce7f942133817876-3">?</div><div class="crayon-line crayon-striped-line" id="crayon-5a7277ce7f942133817876-4"><span class="crayon-r">import</span><span class="crayon-h"> </span><span class="crayon-k ">copy</span></div><div class="crayon-line" id="crayon-5a7277ce7f942133817876-5">?</div><div class="crayon-line crayon-striped-line" id="crayon-5a7277ce7f942133817876-6"><span class="crayon-c"># ???</span></div><div class="crayon-line" id="crayon-5a7277ce7f942133817876-7">?</div><div class="crayon-line crayon-striped-line" id="crayon-5a7277ce7f942133817876-8"><span class="crayon-v">a</span><span class="crayon-h"> </span><span class="crayon-o">=</span><span class="crayon-h"> </span><span class="crayon-sy">[</span><span class="crayon-cn">1</span><span class="crayon-sy">,</span><span class="crayon-h"> </span><span class="crayon-s">"a"</span><span class="crayon-sy">,</span><span class="crayon-h"> </span><span class="crayon-cn">3</span><span class="crayon-sy">,</span><span class="crayon-h"> </span><span class="crayon-sy">[</span><span class="crayon-cn">4</span><span class="crayon-sy">,</span><span class="crayon-h"> </span><span class="crayon-cn">5</span><span class="crayon-sy">,</span><span class="crayon-h"> </span><span class="crayon-cn">6</span><span class="crayon-sy">]</span><span class="crayon-sy">,</span><span class="crayon-h"> </span><span class="crayon-sy">[</span><span class="crayon-sy">[</span><span class="crayon-cn">7</span><span class="crayon-sy">,</span><span class="crayon-h"> </span><span class="crayon-cn">8</span><span class="crayon-sy">,</span><span class="crayon-h"> </span><span class="crayon-cn">9</span><span class="crayon-sy">]</span><span class="crayon-sy">]</span><span class="crayon-sy">]</span></div><div class="crayon-line" id="crayon-5a7277ce7f942133817876-9">?</div><div class="crayon-line crayon-striped-line" id="crayon-5a7277ce7f942133817876-10"><span class="crayon-v">b</span><span class="crayon-h"> </span><span class="crayon-o">=</span><span class="crayon-h"> </span><span class="crayon-i">a</span></div><div class="crayon-line" id="crayon-5a7277ce7f942133817876-11">?</div><div class="crayon-line crayon-striped-line" id="crayon-5a7277ce7f942133817876-12"><span class="crayon-v">c</span><span class="crayon-h"> </span><span class="crayon-o">=</span><span class="crayon-h"> </span><span class="crayon-k ">list</span><span class="crayon-sy">(</span><span class="crayon-v">a</span><span class="crayon-sy">)</span></div><div class="crayon-line" id="crayon-5a7277ce7f942133817876-13">?</div><div class="crayon-line crayon-striped-line" id="crayon-5a7277ce7f942133817876-14"><span class="crayon-v">d</span><span class="crayon-h"> </span><span class="crayon-o">=</span><span class="crayon-h"> </span><span class="crayon-k ">copy</span><span class="crayon-sy">.</span><span class="crayon-e">deepcopy</span><span class="crayon-sy">(</span><span class="crayon-v">a</span><span class="crayon-sy">)</span></div><div class="crayon-line" id="crayon-5a7277ce7f942133817876-15"><span class="crayon-k ">print</span><span class="crayon-h"> </span><span class="crayon-s">"???&&&"</span></div><div class="crayon-line crayon-striped-line" id="crayon-5a7277ce7f942133817876-16"><span class="crayon-k ">print</span><span class="crayon-h"> </span><span class="crayon-k ">id</span><span class="crayon-sy">(</span><span class="crayon-v">a</span><span class="crayon-sy">)</span></div><div class="crayon-line" id="crayon-5a7277ce7f942133817876-17"><span class="crayon-k ">print</span><span class="crayon-h"> </span><span class="crayon-s">"????&&&"</span></div><div class="crayon-line crayon-striped-line" id="crayon-5a7277ce7f942133817876-18"><span class="crayon-k ">print</span><span class="crayon-h"> </span><span class="crayon-k ">id</span><span class="crayon-sy">(</span><span class="crayon-v">b</span><span class="crayon-sy">)</span></div><div class="crayon-line" id="crayon-5a7277ce7f942133817876-19"><span class="crayon-k ">print</span><span class="crayon-h"> </span><span class="crayon-s">"?????&&&"</span></div><div class="crayon-line crayon-striped-line" id="crayon-5a7277ce7f942133817876-20"><span class="crayon-k ">print</span><span class="crayon-h"> </span><span class="crayon-k ">id</span><span class="crayon-sy">(</span><span class="crayon-v">c</span><span class="crayon-sy">)</span></div><div class="crayon-line" id="crayon-5a7277ce7f942133817876-21"><span class="crayon-k ">print</span><span class="crayon-h"> </span><span class="crayon-s">"?????&&&"</span></div><div class="crayon-line crayon-striped-line" id="crayon-5a7277ce7f942133817876-22"><span class="crayon-k ">print</span><span class="crayon-h"> </span><span class="crayon-k ">id</span><span class="crayon-sy">(</span><span class="crayon-v">d</span><span class="crayon-sy">)</span></div><div class="crayon-line" id="crayon-5a7277ce7f942133817876-23">?</div><div class="crayon-line crayon-striped-line" id="crayon-5a7277ce7f942133817876-24"><span class="crayon-k ">print</span><span class="crayon-h"> </span><span class="crayon-s">"????###"</span></div><div class="crayon-line" id="crayon-5a7277ce7f942133817876-25"><span class="crayon-st">for</span><span class="crayon-h"> </span><span class="crayon-v">i</span><span class="crayon-sy">,</span><span class="crayon-h"> </span><span class="crayon-i">j</span><span class="crayon-h"> </span><span class="crayon-st">in</span><span class="crayon-h"> </span><span class="crayon-k ">zip</span><span class="crayon-sy">(</span><span class="crayon-v">a</span><span class="crayon-sy">,</span><span class="crayon-h"> </span><span class="crayon-v">b</span><span class="crayon-sy">)</span><span class="crayon-o">:</span></div><div class="crayon-line crayon-striped-line" id="crayon-5a7277ce7f942133817876-26"><span class="crayon-h">????</span><span class="crayon-k ">print</span><span class="crayon-h"> </span><span class="crayon-k ">id</span><span class="crayon-sy">(</span><span class="crayon-v">i</span><span class="crayon-sy">)</span><span class="crayon-sy">,</span><span class="crayon-h"> </span><span class="crayon-k ">id</span><span class="crayon-sy">(</span><span class="crayon-v">j</span><span class="crayon-sy">)</span></div><div class="crayon-line" id="crayon-5a7277ce7f942133817876-27"><span class="crayon-k ">print</span><span class="crayon-h"> </span><span class="crayon-s">"?????###"</span></div><div class="crayon-line crayon-striped-line" id="crayon-5a7277ce7f942133817876-28"><span class="crayon-st">for</span><span class="crayon-h"> </span><span class="crayon-v">i</span><span class="crayon-sy">,</span><span class="crayon-h"> </span><span class="crayon-i">j</span><span class="crayon-h"> </span><span class="crayon-st">in</span><span class="crayon-h"> </span><span class="crayon-k ">zip</span><span class="crayon-sy">(</span><span class="crayon-v">a</span><span class="crayon-sy">,</span><span class="crayon-h"> </span><span class="crayon-v">c</span><span class="crayon-sy">)</span><span class="crayon-o">:</span></div><div class="crayon-line" id="crayon-5a7277ce7f942133817876-29"><span class="crayon-h">????</span><span class="crayon-k ">print</span><span class="crayon-h"> </span><span class="crayon-k ">id</span><span class="crayon-sy">(</span><span class="crayon-v">i</span><span class="crayon-sy">)</span><span class="crayon-sy">,</span><span class="crayon-h"> </span><span class="crayon-k ">id</span><span class="crayon-sy">(</span><span class="crayon-v">j</span><span class="crayon-sy">)</span></div><div class="crayon-line crayon-striped-line" id="crayon-5a7277ce7f942133817876-30"><span class="crayon-k ">print</span><span class="crayon-h"> </span><span class="crayon-s">"?????###"</span></div><div class="crayon-line" id="crayon-5a7277ce7f942133817876-31"><span class="crayon-st">for</span><span class="crayon-h"> </span><span class="crayon-v">i</span><span class="crayon-sy">,</span><span class="crayon-h"> </span><span class="crayon-i">j</span><span class="crayon-h"> </span><span class="crayon-st">in</span><span class="crayon-h"> </span><span class="crayon-k ">zip</span><span class="crayon-sy">(</span><span class="crayon-v">a</span><span class="crayon-sy">,</span><span class="crayon-h"> </span><span class="crayon-v">d</span><span class="crayon-sy">)</span><span class="crayon-o">:</span></div><div class="crayon-line crayon-striped-line" id="crayon-5a7277ce7f942133817876-32"><span class="crayon-h">????</span><span class="crayon-k ">print</span><span class="crayon-h"> </span><span class="crayon-k ">id</span><span class="crayon-sy">(</span><span class="crayon-v">i</span><span class="crayon-sy">)</span><span class="crayon-sy">,</span><span class="crayon-h"> </span><span class="crayon-k ">id</span><span class="crayon-sy">(</span><span class="crayon-v">j</span><span class="crayon-sy">)</span></div><div class="crayon-line" id="crayon-5a7277ce7f942133817876-33"><span class="crayon-k ">print</span><span class="crayon-h"> </span><span class="crayon-s">"######"</span></div><div class="crayon-line crayon-striped-line" id="crayon-5a7277ce7f942133817876-34">?</div><div class="crayon-line" id="crayon-5a7277ce7f942133817876-35"><span class="crayon-v">a</span><span class="crayon-sy">[</span><span class="crayon-cn">0</span><span class="crayon-sy">]</span><span class="crayon-h"> </span><span class="crayon-o">=</span><span class="crayon-h"> </span><span class="crayon-cn">2</span></div><div class="crayon-line crayon-striped-line" id="crayon-5a7277ce7f942133817876-36"><span class="crayon-v">a</span><span class="crayon-sy">[</span><span class="crayon-cn">3</span><span class="crayon-sy">]</span><span class="crayon-sy">[</span><span class="crayon-cn">0</span><span class="crayon-sy">]</span><span class="crayon-h"> </span><span class="crayon-o">=</span><span class="crayon-h"> </span><span class="crayon-cn">14</span></div><div class="crayon-line" id="crayon-5a7277ce7f942133817876-37"><span class="crayon-k ">print</span><span class="crayon-h"> </span><span class="crayon-s">"????? %d, %d"</span><span class="crayon-h"> </span><span class="crayon-o">%</span><span class="crayon-h"> </span><span class="crayon-sy">(</span><span class="crayon-v">a</span><span class="crayon-sy">[</span><span class="crayon-cn">0</span><span class="crayon-sy">]</span><span class="crayon-sy">,</span><span class="crayon-h"> </span><span class="crayon-v">a</span><span class="crayon-sy">[</span><span class="crayon-cn">3</span><span class="crayon-sy">]</span><span class="crayon-sy">[</span><span class="crayon-cn">0</span><span class="crayon-sy">]</span><span class="crayon-sy">)</span></div><div class="crayon-line crayon-striped-line" id="crayon-5a7277ce7f942133817876-38"><span class="crayon-k ">print</span><span class="crayon-h"> </span><span class="crayon-s">"*******"</span></div><div class="crayon-line" id="crayon-5a7277ce7f942133817876-39"><span class="crayon-k ">print</span><span class="crayon-h"> </span><span class="crayon-s">"????"</span></div><div class="crayon-line crayon-striped-line" id="crayon-5a7277ce7f942133817876-40"><span class="crayon-k ">print</span><span class="crayon-h"> </span><span class="crayon-v">b</span><span class="crayon-sy">[</span><span class="crayon-cn">0</span><span class="crayon-sy">]</span><span class="crayon-sy">,</span><span class="crayon-h"> </span><span class="crayon-v">b</span><span class="crayon-sy">[</span><span class="crayon-cn">3</span><span class="crayon-sy">]</span><span class="crayon-sy">[</span><span class="crayon-cn">0</span><span class="crayon-sy">]</span></div><div class="crayon-line" id="crayon-5a7277ce7f942133817876-41"><span class="crayon-k ">print</span><span class="crayon-h"> </span><span class="crayon-s">"?????"</span></div><div class="crayon-line crayon-striped-line" id="crayon-5a7277ce7f942133817876-42"><span class="crayon-k ">print</span><span class="crayon-h"> </span><span class="crayon-v">c</span><span class="crayon-sy">[</span><span class="crayon-cn">0</span><span class="crayon-sy">]</span><span class="crayon-sy">,</span><span class="crayon-h"> </span><span class="crayon-v">c</span><span class="crayon-sy">[</span><span class="crayon-cn">3</span><span class="crayon-sy">]</span><span class="crayon-sy">[</span><span class="crayon-cn">0</span><span class="crayon-sy">]</span></div><div class="crayon-line" id="crayon-5a7277ce7f942133817876-43"><span class="crayon-k ">print</span><span class="crayon-h"> </span><span class="crayon-s">"?????"</span></div><div class="crayon-line crayon-striped-line" id="crayon-5a7277ce7f942133817876-44"><span class="crayon-k ">print</span><span class="crayon-h"> </span><span class="crayon-v">d</span><span class="crayon-sy">[</span><span class="crayon-cn">0</span><span class="crayon-sy">]</span><span class="crayon-sy">,</span><span class="crayon-h"> </span><span class="crayon-v">d</span><span class="crayon-sy">[</span><span class="crayon-cn">3</span><span class="crayon-sy">]</span><span class="crayon-sy">[</span><span class="crayon-cn">0</span><span class="crayon-sy">]</span></div><div class="crayon-line" id="crayon-5a7277ce7f942133817876-45"><span class="crayon-k ">print</span><span class="crayon-h"> </span><span class="crayon-s">"**##"print a</textarea></div> <div class="crayon-main" style=""> <table class="crayon-table"> <tr class="crayon-row"> <td class="crayon-nums " data-settings="show"> <div class="crayon-nums-content" style="font-size: 13px !important; line-height: 15px !important;"><div class="crayon-num" data-line="crayon-5a7277ce7f942133817876-1">1</div><div class="crayon-num crayon-striped-num" data-line="crayon-5a7277ce7f942133817876-2">2</div><div class="crayon-num" data-line="crayon-5a7277ce7f942133817876-3">3</div><div class="crayon-num crayon-striped-num" data-line="crayon-5a7277ce7f942133817876-4">4</div><div class="crayon-num" data-line="crayon-5a7277ce7f942133817876-5">5</div><div class="crayon-num crayon-striped-num" data-line="crayon-5a7277ce7f942133817876-6">6</div><div class="crayon-num" data-line="crayon-5a7277ce7f942133817876-7">7</div><div class="crayon-num crayon-striped-num" data-line="crayon-5a7277ce7f942133817876-8">8</div><div class="crayon-num" data-line="crayon-5a7277ce7f942133817876-9">9</div><div class="crayon-num crayon-striped-num" data-line="crayon-5a7277ce7f942133817876-10">10</div><div class="crayon-num" data-line="crayon-5a7277ce7f942133817876-11">11</div><div class="crayon-num crayon-striped-num" data-line="crayon-5a7277ce7f942133817876-12">12</div><div class="crayon-num" data-line="crayon-5a7277ce7f942133817876-13">13</div><div class="crayon-num crayon-striped-num" data-line="crayon-5a7277ce7f942133817876-14">14</div><div class="crayon-num" data-line="crayon-5a7277ce7f942133817876-15">15</div><div class="crayon-num crayon-striped-num" data-line="crayon-5a7277ce7f942133817876-16">16</div><div class="crayon-num" data-line="crayon-5a7277ce7f942133817876-17">17</div><div class="crayon-num crayon-striped-num" data-line="crayon-5a7277ce7f942133817876-18">18</div><div class="crayon-num" data-line="crayon-5a7277ce7f942133817876-19">19</div><div class="crayon-num crayon-striped-num" data-line="crayon-5a7277ce7f942133817876-20">20</div><div class="crayon-num" data-line="crayon-5a7277ce7f942133817876-21">21</div><div class="crayon-num crayon-striped-num" data-line="crayon-5a7277ce7f942133817876-22">22</div><div class="crayon-num" data-line="crayon-5a7277ce7f942133817876-23">23</div><div class="crayon-num crayon-striped-num" data-line="crayon-5a7277ce7f942133817876-24">24</div><div class="crayon-num" data-line="crayon-5a7277ce7f942133817876-25">25</div><div class="crayon-num crayon-striped-num" data-line="crayon-5a7277ce7f942133817876-26">26</div><div class="crayon-num" data-line="crayon-5a7277ce7f942133817876-27">27</div><div class="crayon-num crayon-striped-num" data-line="crayon-5a7277ce7f942133817876-28">28</div><div class="crayon-num" data-line="crayon-5a7277ce7f942133817876-29">29</div><div class="crayon-num crayon-striped-num" data-line="crayon-5a7277ce7f942133817876-30">30</div><div class="crayon-num" data-line="crayon-5a7277ce7f942133817876-31">31</div><div class="crayon-num crayon-striped-num" data-line="crayon-5a7277ce7f942133817876-32">32</div><div class="crayon-num" data-line="crayon-5a7277ce7f942133817876-33">33</div><div class="crayon-num crayon-striped-num" data-line="crayon-5a7277ce7f942133817876-34">34</div><div class="crayon-num" data-line="crayon-5a7277ce7f942133817876-35">35</div><div class="crayon-num crayon-striped-num" data-line="crayon-5a7277ce7f942133817876-36">36</div><div class="crayon-num" data-line="crayon-5a7277ce7f942133817876-37">37</div><div class="crayon-num crayon-striped-num" data-line="crayon-5a7277ce7f942133817876-38">38</div><div class="crayon-num" data-line="crayon-5a7277ce7f942133817876-39">39</div><div class="crayon-num crayon-striped-num" data-line="crayon-5a7277ce7f942133817876-40">40</div><div class="crayon-num" data-line="crayon-5a7277ce7f942133817876-41">41</div><div class="crayon-num crayon-striped-num" data-line="crayon-5a7277ce7f942133817876-42">42</div><div class="crayon-num" data-line="crayon-5a7277ce7f942133817876-43">43</div><div class="crayon-num crayon-striped-num" data-line="crayon-5a7277ce7f942133817876-44">44</div><div class="crayon-num" data-line="crayon-5a7277ce7f942133817876-45">45</div><div class="crayon-num crayon-striped-num" data-line="crayon-5a7277ce7f942133817876-46">46</div></div> </td> <td class="crayon-code"><div class="crayon-pre" style="font-size: 13px !important; line-height: 15px !important; -moz-tab-size:4; -o-tab-size:4; -webkit-tab-size:4; tab-size:4;"><div class="crayon-line" id="crayon-5a7277ce7f942133817876-1"><span class="crayon-c">#! /usr/bin/python</span></div><div class="crayon-line crayon-striped-line" id="crayon-5a7277ce7f942133817876-2"><span class="crayon-c"># -*- coding:UTF-8 -*-</span></div><div class="crayon-line" id="crayon-5a7277ce7f942133817876-3">?</div><div class="crayon-line crayon-striped-line" id="crayon-5a7277ce7f942133817876-4"><span class="crayon-r">import</span><span class="crayon-h"> </span><span class="crayon-k ">copy</span></div><div class="crayon-line" id="crayon-5a7277ce7f942133817876-5">?</div><div class="crayon-line crayon-striped-line" id="crayon-5a7277ce7f942133817876-6"><span class="crayon-c"># ???</span></div><div class="crayon-line" id="crayon-5a7277ce7f942133817876-7">?</div><div class="crayon-line crayon-striped-line" id="crayon-5a7277ce7f942133817876-8"><span class="crayon-v">a</span><span class="crayon-h"> </span><span class="crayon-o">=</span><span class="crayon-h"> </span><span class="crayon-sy">[</span><span class="crayon-cn">1</span><span class="crayon-sy">,</span><span class="crayon-h"> </span><span class="crayon-s">"a"</span><span class="crayon-sy">,</span><span class="crayon-h"> </span><span class="crayon-cn">3</span><span class="crayon-sy">,</span><span class="crayon-h"> </span><span class="crayon-sy">[</span><span class="crayon-cn">4</span><span class="crayon-sy">,</span><span class="crayon-h"> </span><span class="crayon-cn">5</span><span class="crayon-sy">,</span><span class="crayon-h"> </span><span class="crayon-cn">6</span><span class="crayon-sy">]</span><span class="crayon-sy">,</span><span class="crayon-h"> </span><span class="crayon-sy">[</span><span class="crayon-sy">[</span><span class="crayon-cn">7</span><span class="crayon-sy">,</span><span class="crayon-h"> </span><span class="crayon-cn">8</span><span class="crayon-sy">,</span><span class="crayon-h"> </span><span class="crayon-cn">9</span><span class="crayon-sy">]</span><span class="crayon-sy">]</span><span class="crayon-sy">]</span></div><div class="crayon-line" id="crayon-5a7277ce7f942133817876-9">?</div><div class="crayon-line crayon-striped-line" id="crayon-5a7277ce7f942133817876-10"><span class="crayon-v">b</span><span class="crayon-h"> </span><span class="crayon-o">=</span><span class="crayon-h"> </span><span class="crayon-i">a</span></div><div class="crayon-line" id="crayon-5a7277ce7f942133817876-11">?</div><div class="crayon-line crayon-striped-line" id="crayon-5a7277ce7f942133817876-12"><span class="crayon-v">c</span><span class="crayon-h"> </span><span class="crayon-o">=</span><span class="crayon-h"> </span><span class="crayon-k ">list</span><span class="crayon-sy">(</span><span class="crayon-v">a</span><span class="crayon-sy">)</span></div><div class="crayon-line" id="crayon-5a7277ce7f942133817876-13">?</div><div class="crayon-line crayon-striped-line" id="crayon-5a7277ce7f942133817876-14"><span class="crayon-v">d</span><span class="crayon-h"> </span><span class="crayon-o">=</span><span class="crayon-h"> </span><span class="crayon-k ">copy</span><span class="crayon-sy">.</span><span class="crayon-e">deepcopy</span><span class="crayon-sy">(</span><span class="crayon-v">a</span><span class="crayon-sy">)</span></div><div class="crayon-line" id="crayon-5a7277ce7f942133817876-15"><span class="crayon-k ">print</span><span class="crayon-h"> </span><span class="crayon-s">"???&&&"</span></div><div class="crayon-line crayon-striped-line" id="crayon-5a7277ce7f942133817876-16"><span class="crayon-k ">print</span><span class="crayon-h"> </span><span class="crayon-k ">id</span><span class="crayon-sy">(</span><span class="crayon-v">a</span><span class="crayon-sy">)</span></div><div class="crayon-line" id="crayon-5a7277ce7f942133817876-17"><span class="crayon-k ">print</span><span class="crayon-h"> </span><span class="crayon-s">"????&&&"</span></div><div class="crayon-line crayon-striped-line" id="crayon-5a7277ce7f942133817876-18"><span class="crayon-k ">print</span><span class="crayon-h"> </span><span class="crayon-k ">id</span><span class="crayon-sy">(</span><span class="crayon-v">b</span><span class="crayon-sy">)</span></div><div class="crayon-line" id="crayon-5a7277ce7f942133817876-19"><span class="crayon-k ">print</span><span class="crayon-h"> </span><span class="crayon-s">"?????&&&"</span></div><div class="crayon-line crayon-striped-line" id="crayon-5a7277ce7f942133817876-20"><span class="crayon-k ">print</span><span class="crayon-h"> </span><span class="crayon-k ">id</span><span class="crayon-sy">(</span><span class="crayon-v">c</span><span class="crayon-sy">)</span></div><div class="crayon-line" id="crayon-5a7277ce7f942133817876-21"><span class="crayon-k ">print</span><span class="crayon-h"> </span><span class="crayon-s">"?????&&&"</span></div><div class="crayon-line crayon-striped-line" id="crayon-5a7277ce7f942133817876-22"><span class="crayon-k ">print</span><span class="crayon-h"> </span><span class="crayon-k ">id</span><span class="crayon-sy">(</span><span class="crayon-v">d</span><span class="crayon-sy">)</span></div><div class="crayon-line" id="crayon-5a7277ce7f942133817876-23">?</div><div class="crayon-line crayon-striped-line" id="crayon-5a7277ce7f942133817876-24"><span class="crayon-k ">print</span><span class="crayon-h"> </span><span class="crayon-s">"????###"</span></div><div class="crayon-line" id="crayon-5a7277ce7f942133817876-25"><span class="crayon-st">for</span><span class="crayon-h"> </span><span class="crayon-v">i</span><span class="crayon-sy">,</span><span class="crayon-h"> </span><span class="crayon-i">j</span><span class="crayon-h"> </span><span class="crayon-st">in</span><span class="crayon-h"> </span><span class="crayon-k ">zip</span><span class="crayon-sy">(</span><span class="crayon-v">a</span><span class="crayon-sy">,</span><span class="crayon-h"> </span><span class="crayon-v">b</span><span class="crayon-sy">)</span><span class="crayon-o">:</span></div><div class="crayon-line crayon-striped-line" id="crayon-5a7277ce7f942133817876-26"><span class="crayon-h">????</span><span class="crayon-k ">print</span><span class="crayon-h"> </span><span class="crayon-k ">id</span><span class="crayon-sy">(</span><span class="crayon-v">i</span><span class="crayon-sy">)</span><span class="crayon-sy">,</span><span class="crayon-h"> </span><span class="crayon-k ">id</span><span class="crayon-sy">(</span><span class="crayon-v">j</span><span class="crayon-sy">)</span></div><div class="crayon-line" id="crayon-5a7277ce7f942133817876-27"><span class="crayon-k ">print</span><span class="crayon-h"> </span><span class="crayon-s">"?????###"</span></div><div class="crayon-line crayon-striped-line" id="crayon-5a7277ce7f942133817876-28"><span class="crayon-st">for</span><span class="crayon-h"> </span><span class="crayon-v">i</span><span class="crayon-sy">,</span><span class="crayon-h"> </span><span class="crayon-i">j</span><span class="crayon-h"> </span><span class="crayon-st">in</span><span class="crayon-h"> </span><span class="crayon-k ">zip</span><span class="crayon-sy">(</span><span class="crayon-v">a</span><span class="crayon-sy">,</span><span class="crayon-h"> </span><span class="crayon-v">c</span><span class="crayon-sy">)</span><span class="crayon-o">:</span></div><div class="crayon-line" id="crayon-5a7277ce7f942133817876-29"><span class="crayon-h">????</span><span class="crayon-k ">print</span><span class="crayon-h"> </span><span class="crayon-k ">id</span><span class="crayon-sy">(</span><span class="crayon-v">i</span><span class="crayon-sy">)</span><span class="crayon-sy">,</span><span class="crayon-h"> </span><span class="crayon-k ">id</span><span class="crayon-sy">(</span><span class="crayon-v">j</span><span class="crayon-sy">)</span></div><div class="crayon-line crayon-striped-line" id="crayon-5a7277ce7f942133817876-30"><span class="crayon-k ">print</span><span class="crayon-h"> </span><span class="crayon-s">"?????###"</span></div><div class="crayon-line" id="crayon-5a7277ce7f942133817876-31"><span class="crayon-st">for</span><span class="crayon-h"> </span><span class="crayon-v">i</span><span class="crayon-sy">,</span><span class="crayon-h"> </span><span class="crayon-i">j</span><span class="crayon-h"> </span><span class="crayon-st">in</span><span class="crayon-h"> </span><span class="crayon-k ">zip</span><span class="crayon-sy">(</span><span class="crayon-v">a</span><span class="crayon-sy">,</span><span class="crayon-h"> </span><span class="crayon-v">d</span><span class="crayon-sy">)</span><span class="crayon-o">:</span></div><div class="crayon-line crayon-striped-line" id="crayon-5a7277ce7f942133817876-32"><span class="crayon-h">????</span><span class="crayon-k ">print</span><span class="crayon-h"> </span><span class="crayon-k ">id</span><span class="crayon-sy">(</span><span class="crayon-v">i</span><span class="crayon-sy">)</span><span class="crayon-sy">,</span><span class="crayon-h"> </span><span class="crayon-k ">id</span><span class="crayon-sy">(</span><span class="crayon-v">j</span><span class="crayon-sy">)</span></div><div class="crayon-line" id="crayon-5a7277ce7f942133817876-33"><span class="crayon-k ">print</span><span class="crayon-h"> </span><span class="crayon-s">"######"</span></div><div class="crayon-line crayon-striped-line" id="crayon-5a7277ce7f942133817876-34">?</div><div class="crayon-line" id="crayon-5a7277ce7f942133817876-35"><span class="crayon-v">a</span><span class="crayon-sy">[</span><span class="crayon-cn">0</span><span class="crayon-sy">]</span><span class="crayon-h"> </span><span class="crayon-o">=</span><span class="crayon-h"> </span><span class="crayon-cn">2</span></div><div class="crayon-line crayon-striped-line" id="crayon-5a7277ce7f942133817876-36"><span class="crayon-v">a</span><span class="crayon-sy">[</span><span class="crayon-cn">3</span><span class="crayon-sy">]</span><span class="crayon-sy">[</span><span class="crayon-cn">0</span><span class="crayon-sy">]</span><span class="crayon-h"> </span><span class="crayon-o">=</span><span class="crayon-h"> </span><span class="crayon-cn">14</span></div><div class="crayon-line" id="crayon-5a7277ce7f942133817876-37"><span class="crayon-k ">print</span><span class="crayon-h"> </span><span class="crayon-s">"????? %d, %d"</span><span class="crayon-h"> </span><span class="crayon-o">%</span><span class="crayon-h"> </span><span class="crayon-sy">(</span><span class="crayon-v">a</span><span class="crayon-sy">[</span><span class="crayon-cn">0</span><span class="crayon-sy">]</span><span class="crayon-sy">,</span><span class="crayon-h"> </span><span class="crayon-v">a</span><span class="crayon-sy">[</span><span class="crayon-cn">3</span><span class="crayon-sy">]</span><span class="crayon-sy">[</span><span class="crayon-cn">0</span><span class="crayon-sy">]</span><span class="crayon-sy">)</span></div><div class="crayon-line crayon-striped-line" id="crayon-5a7277ce7f942133817876-38"><span class="crayon-k ">print</span><span class="crayon-h"> </span><span class="crayon-s">"*******"</span></div><div class="crayon-line" id="crayon-5a7277ce7f942133817876-39"><span class="crayon-k ">print</span><span class="crayon-h"> </span><span class="crayon-s">"????"</span></div><div class="crayon-line crayon-striped-line" id="crayon-5a7277ce7f942133817876-40"><span class="crayon-k ">print</span><span class="crayon-h"> </span><span class="crayon-v">b</span><span class="crayon-sy">[</span><span class="crayon-cn">0</span><span class="crayon-sy">]</span><span class="crayon-sy">,</span><span class="crayon-h"> </span><span class="crayon-v">b</span><span class="crayon-sy">[</span><span class="crayon-cn">3</span><span class="crayon-sy">]</span><span class="crayon-sy">[</span><span class="crayon-cn">0</span><span class="crayon-sy">]</span></div><div class="crayon-line" id="crayon-5a7277ce7f942133817876-41"><span class="crayon-k ">print</span><span class="crayon-h"> </span><span class="crayon-s">"?????"</span></div><div class="crayon-line crayon-striped-line" id="crayon-5a7277ce7f942133817876-42"><span class="crayon-k ">print</span><span class="crayon-h"> </span><span class="crayon-v">c</span><span class="crayon-sy">[</span><span class="crayon-cn">0</span><span class="crayon-sy">]</span><span class="crayon-sy">,</span><span class="crayon-h"> </span><span class="crayon-v">c</span><span class="crayon-sy">[</span><span class="crayon-cn">3</span><span class="crayon-sy">]</span><span class="crayon-sy">[</span><span class="crayon-cn">0</span><span class="crayon-sy">]</span></div><div class="crayon-line" id="crayon-5a7277ce7f942133817876-43"><span class="crayon-k ">print</span><span class="crayon-h"> </span><span class="crayon-s">"?????"</span></div><div class="crayon-line crayon-striped-line" id="crayon-5a7277ce7f942133817876-44"><span class="crayon-k ">print</span><span class="crayon-h"> </span><span class="crayon-v">d</span><span class="crayon-sy">[</span><span class="crayon-cn">0</span><span class="crayon-sy">]</span><span class="crayon-sy">,</span><span class="crayon-h"> </span><span class="crayon-v">d</span><span class="crayon-sy">[</span><span class="crayon-cn">3</span><span class="crayon-sy">]</span><span class="crayon-sy">[</span><span class="crayon-cn">0</span><span class="crayon-sy">]</span></div><div class="crayon-line" id="crayon-5a7277ce7f942133817876-45"><span class="crayon-k ">print</span><span class="crayon-h"> </span><span class="crayon-s">"**##"

print a

   



 


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